A jet pump is the most famous type of centrifugal pump. It is a non-submersible pump that uses two basic principles: pump and centrifugal operation. The injection is done by blowing water into the venturi tube with a nozzle to create a vacuum.
This will pull water out of the impeller and push it out at the other end. The use of runners to move water makes the pump centrifugal. These pumps are usually utilized to pump water from a well through a suction pipe to provide drinking water or service water pressure.
Other common uses include, but are not limited to, commercial or light irrigation sprinklers and residential irrigation systems. Jet pumps are generally most famous popular in zones with high water tables and hot climates.
The jet pump installs on the floor and cannot be submerged in water. These pumps usually use to pump water from a well through a suction pipe to provide drinking water or service water pressure. Other common uses include, but are not limited to, commercial or light irrigation sprinklers and residential irrigation systems. Jet pumps are generally more prevalent in hot climates and areas with high water tables.
Jet pumps are generally less efficient than other pumping devices and require a source of high-pressure fluid to operate. This severely restricts the scope of application.
Working of Jet Pump
The Jet Pump artificial buoyancy system consists of two parts:
- Surface pumping device
- Descending jet pump.
A piston pump transfers energy to the fluid at the surface to increase the pressure and drives the fluid through the surface tube, production tube (or annulus) until the jet pump is positioned on the ground.
The ground equipment consists of a unit (high-pressure pump with accessories, motor, reduction gear, control), Power Fluid Control Unit (VCU), and high-pressure lines.
When the prime mover flows through a small area of the jet pump (called a “nozzle”) under high pressure, a venturi effect occurs, which increases speed and decreases pressure. This creates a suction force for the liquid in the reservoir’s space between the mouthpiece and the neck.
When the drive fluid enters the mixing tube, the flow area increases, the conversion of energy is reversed, the speed decreases, and the pressure increase. This allows the liquid in the reservoir to rise to the surface through the annulus.
Nozzles and throats are important parts of jet pumps. The area ratio of the two parts is called the pump area ratio and determines the performance characteristics of the pump. Pumps with the same area ratio have the same performance and efficiency curves.
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Types of Jet Pumps
The jet pump has the following four types:
1) Convertible jet pump
It is a “convertible” pump. That is, it can be configured for deep or shallow wellbore applications.
2) Miniature pumps
This pump uses for small (mostly commercial) purposes such as aquariums.
3) Shallow well pumps
These are utilized in applications where the medium is near to the surface, like residential wells. The ejector of this pump is screwed to the front end of the pump.
4) Deep-well jet pump
It uses for high-volume applications like in oil wells 800-15,000 feet deep. The ejector for this pump installs on the underfloor.
Applications of Jet Pumps
Jet pumps are usually used vertically in the process medium but can also be installed horizontally. These are often used in applications that help the pump material to generate the energy required to move within the pump. In marine applications, for example, jet pumps are used to transport seawater. For household use, it is used to transport sewage into the sewer system. Float level sensors and switches are used to start the pump.
- Jet pumps mainly use to create and maintain a vacuum by removing steam from a closed system. In this service, they are often referred to as “ejectors.”
- A jet pump can use to mix the liquid in the container.
How to Prime a Jet Pump?
You can prime your jet pump in the following way:
- Turn off the pump.
- Remove the oil filler cap from the wet end of the pump (not the motor).
- Fill the hole with water until it stabilizes in the hole without foaming.
- Replace the filler plug.
- Reconnect the power supply and turn it on.
- Check the pressure. If the pump pressure rises continuously, it has started normally. If not, repeat the startup process.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Jet Pumps
- These pumps have a long service life.
- These are the most efficient pumps.
- A jet pump has a low number of moving components.
- They require very low maintenance.
- These pumps are more powerful than reciprocating pumps.
- They provide a continuous flow of fluid
- They provide pulsating free flow.
- These have the capability to control a high GLR.
- These pumps may utilize in wells that have a large deflection angle without destructive the tubes.
- They have cavitation problems.
- These pumps have priming issues.
- They need high power to pump the fluid.
- A submersible pump pushes the water toward the surface while the jet pump works by pulling it.